What are the 3 Stages of Wastewater Treatment?

Wastewater can be treated in up to three stages generally known as primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment. Here’s what’s involved in each of these stages:

  • Primary Treatment

    In this stage, heavy solids and grease are separated from the raw sewage through gravity and buoyancy respectively. A conventional septic tank is an example of primary treatment.

  • Secondary Treatment

    The wastewater that leaves a septic tank or other primary treatment apparatus is still pretty contaminated with suspended solids and toxic chemicals such as ammonia. Secondary treatment systems use oxygen to facilitate natural digestion of contaminants by micro organisms already present in the wastewater. All municipal systems use secondary treatment.

  • Tertiary Treatment

    Even though much cleaner, water leaving secondary treatment can still pose somewhat of a threat to the environment. To ensure complete protection of aquifers and watersheds, wastewater effluent can enter a third treatment stage. Tertiary treatment usually involves some sort of natural or chemical filtration/sanitization. Examples of tertiary treatment are constructed wetlands or drip irrigation fields.

Our systems use all three stages of wastewater treatment to equip you for responsible growth. Let us show you how!

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